Once to wolves was not equal among large predators - so widely they have been extended and so dexterously extracted to itself livelihood. But wolves disturbed to the person in its hunting, exhausted the sheep herds and even were considered as cannibals - and the person exterminated them many long years... Now wolves moleno to meet only in dense forests and it is high in mountains.
Clever, artful and unpretentious, wolves lived everywhere. Usual grey wolves lived in flat woods and steppes, is high in mountains, in semi-desert and in ice tundra... To survive in so different environments, they had to be content with any extraction - from insects and mice to mighty bisons, elks and a musk oxen. Among predators to wolves was not equal, but in unequal struggle against people they have lost.
Has remained only two kinds of wolves. Red wolves during former times abounded in the southeast USA, but now it is not enough of them, and at liberty, probably, at all does not remain. On the other hand, grey wolves meet till now in Canada, on Alaska, in the Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, Russia, in the Near East, in Central Asia, and on open spaces of Siberia.
Zoologists carry To grey wolves enough unlike against each other a polar wolf, the American wood wolf, a steppe wolf of the Central Asian deserts and a wolf the ordinary, remained in wood and mountain areas of East and Northern Europe. The steppe wolf differs from the grey inhabitant of a thicket podzharostju and more light colour, and the inhabitant of tundra a polar wolf more than the colleagues and is wrapped up in warm, almost white fur coat. The wolf flight is a family in which seldom lives more than 20 individuals. In each flight wanders 6-8 adult wolves submitting to the leader and its girlfriend, a she-wolf-mother. It their children who have already grown, but not managed to get own territories. Cubs in flight usually are born only at pair leaders.
By the nature wolves last to each other, help similar and thus rigidly observe hierarchy at which top there is a leader and its darling; the male at the head of flight has more powers, than its she-wolf, and vsjak an animal a rank more low well keeps at a distance also the status. If with the leader or a she-wolf-mother something happens, the vacant place will get to someone to another, but the competition for a place at the head of flight seldom leads to fight: wolves understand that finding-out of relations such can put out of action irreplaceable in hunting "сюхтѕ¦ хфшэшчѕ" and consequently oppositions of members of one flight have purely symbolical character. However, any wolf, occupying the niche in flight, would like to rise above and when all flight gathers, difficult rituals in which course animals check begin, whether there should be a former order. Happens that in such game someone pushes aside the leader, and that, it having appeared on a background, not always can reconcile to defeat and for ever leaves flight.
The youngest, taking bottom places in animal hierarchy males who have nothing to lose, too leave native flights, hoping to meet similar and to get the flight. Sometimes such singles can overcome huge distances.
the Lonely wolf moves cautiously, avoiding the territories occupied with other flights, and without intruding upon their leisure: the meeting with numerically surpassing opponents can become last adventure in his life. Never touching the, the flight will ruthlessly finish with a stranger. In search of extraction wolves get on farms where appear near to the person and risk to leave a life. In the autumn and in the winter flight ryshchet on certain territory; in wood where the game suffices, these limits are small - no more than 100 sq. km, and there where it is necessary to look for extraction, the area "ётюш§" the earths increases in ten and more times. The polar wolves hunting on reindeers, follow from year to year their herds on all tundra; happens that at herd of deer there is a wolf flight. Once zoologists have tracked movement of one flight across Alaska: Wolves for one and a half month have passed 1100 km on open spaces the area of 13 thousand in sq. km!
As wolves mark possession
Wandering on such huge territory, the flight, naturally, cannot keep on it exclusive rights, but the wood wolves, which possession less, are inclined to see in them only the earth. The wolf marks the possession of own smell (as? The same as our dogs lifting paws at lampposts), especially being zealous on a border land that neighbours knew who here lives, and were not put, and that it not pozdorovitsja.
Wolves communicate among themselves not only by means of traces-labels, but also we howl. If one flight runs into another, losses not to avoid, and consequently wolves disclose vytem vicinities, informing another on the approach. One wolf starts to howl, it is echoed by the others. Pursuing extraction, wolves howl, notifying colleagues on the site. On howl one flight all flights nearby respond, and in wood inconceivable cacophony rises. However, happens and so that one of flights will not pick up the stranger howl, - it is numerically small, and consequently it is better to it to hide or even on the sly to retire for the same reasons. By the way, the lonely wolf does not howl never.
If the flight does not howl, it or assigns to herself new territory, or prepares for an ambush, having scented extraction. The wolf flights apply tactics of silent penetration on the new earths there where there were few free possession.
In the Late spring wolves change the habits. They do not wander any more, and ryshchut in search of extraction only near to a den where are going to get posterity. Usually the den selects and the pregnant woman from the leader a female (most likely, this pair will not leave till the end of a life) equips. It bears cubs seven weeks and brings from 4 to 7 blind and helpless kids. From this point on she does not leave a den of week three; extraction is brought by the father of family. Other members of flight remain nearby and too feed up a she-wolf and its brood while volchata will not grow up. When the she-wolf starts to leave itself on hunting, the flight looks after kids.
Two or three months volchata can already be afraid later after flight, and all wolf family leaves a den. The wolf offsprings stay at parents some years, master knowledge of hunting and after the lapse of time leave to get own flights.
it is possible to name Wolves prisposoblentsami - they eat everything that it is possible to catch, and all who is weaker than them. In the summer in a diet of wolves as it is strange, birds, frogs, bugs and even vegetarian dishes from wood fruits and lichens enter. Hungry wolves eat also drop, tearing off meat from bones like an Egyptian vulture, - the terrible picture promoting distribution about them of ominous legends. If the wolf does not wish to be content only with that will get to it on a way, he will always choose the largest animal that the made efforts have brought as much as possible food. The lonely wolf will be glad to a small deer or a sheep, and to flight and the animal is larger quite on a teeth.
The Flight without ceremony can tyre out and fill up an elk in weight in half-tons (and this with the fact that one wolf weighs ten times less). Force, determination and coordination of actions so on hunting flight laws are rendered to wolves storitsej are For this purpose necessary.
The Main hunting means of a wolf - his nose catching the slightest smell of extraction. Having scented a smell, all flight turns heads in the necessary direction and fades, that properly it to remember. Wolves wag tails as if having a presentiment of the future feast, and their subsequent actions depend on district type. On open space there is no place to hide, and wolves attack at once; in wood they creep alee, moving one after another and hoping to take a victim unawares.
Such manner of hunting allows to extract an elk or another an animal-single though they, most likely, will scent the enemy and will show to it resistance. Large rogach can accept a fighting rack and blows of hoofs to drive away wolves who should recede and be engaged in searches of a victim more poorly. If the victim starts to escape, wolves will undertake a pursuit, but will refuse it if will lose in speed, - they do not have sense without need to spend forces which yet time will be useful.
Healthy and strong hoofed animals, by and large, have nothing to be afraid of wolves; therefore the flight always looks out for young growth, old or sick animals which are easier for catching. It is well visible, when the wolf flight attacks herd of reindeers or a musk oxen; wolves rush on young individuals, and weakest of them become an easy mark. Thus, the herd which wolves constantly attack, will be more healthy well protected. Having attacked herd, wolves try to create in it a panic to drive away the future victim and it is easy to fill up it; if the herd manages to rearrange and adult animals will surround kids with a wall from firm hoofs and terrible horns, wolves will leave, nesolono hlebavshi, but all the same will watch from afar movement of the weak in herd weak or sick individuals.
the Wolf of a foot feed
Hunting all flight, wolves increase the chances of success. Such "ъюьрэфэ№щ яюф§юф" it is shown in the following. Two or three wolves hide in an ambush, and all flight attacks herd and drives it on hunters; those jump out from "ёхъЁх=р" in herd the panic begins, the scared deer jumps aside aside; it is overtaken by one wolf, then - another, the deer with might and main beats off, but, eventually, falls... With the First satisfies hunger the leader, eating the best pieces and vymazyvajas blood of a victim; other wolves are pounded at some distance, expecting the turn and a share; if meat remains, wolves will earth it or will simply leave, and will wash in the nearest stream, will sleep and will come behind the additive. If in their den females feeding the brood wait, wolves will carry it meat - crude in a teeth or semidigested in stomachs. For once wolf can eat to 10 kg of meat, and the will not miss, at last properly having picked bones; If for a dinner the small small animal has got to a wolf, he will eat it entirely, even with a skin. The wolf satisfies the hunger thoroughly - after all 90% of its hunting sorties come to an end with failure, and at times for kind hunting it should ransack some days. To survive, it is necessary wolves uneasy and if good luck smiles to them, they take everything from the predatory life that presume.