Scorpions long since bothered people with the poisonous sting. They belong to the class paukoobraznyh and consist related to spiders and various pincers.
In total it is known about 1200 kinds of scorpions. Among them and the greatest paukoobraznye, such as the Guinean imperial scorpion reaching at length of 180 mm, and the smallest - length only 13 mm.
Scorpions, spiders and their relatives belong to the class pseudoscientific, group of arthropods. Usually bodies paukoobraznyh consist of two parts: a forward part (golovogrudi), representing accrete together a breast and a head, and a paunch. At scorpions golovogrud is the basic part of a body, but distinguishes them from others paukoobraznyh the long paunch consisting of a number of segments (chlenikov), and trailer segments form a tail which can bend forward through all body. The tail is topped by a sting because of which the scorpion is considered most terrible of all paukoobraznyh.
Feet and claws
At scorpions of feet of four pairs and one steam kleshnevidnyh finitenesses in a forward part of a body. They fasten on so-called pedipalpah, available and at others paukoobraznyh. The scorpion uses claws for extraction catching. Their one more distinctive feature - pair tiny helitser round a mouth. Besides, in the bottom part of a body of scorpions there are original combs. Colour raskraska scorpions varies from light brown to the black.
Under favour of the darkness
Despite the small sizes, presence ekzoskeleta and sets of feet, paukoobraznyh it is not necessary to confuse to insects. At insects six feet, and at a scorpion and their spider on eight. Unlike insects, the scorpion does not have short moustaches.
Scorpions hunt at night, and hide in cracks, under stones or the fallen down leaves, and also in empty houses in the afternoon. Such life cycle speaks that their basic extraction (some kinds of cockroaches and crickets) too conduct a nocturnalism. The habit of scorpions to hide in crevices or under stones creates a problem for people because got into footwear, the scorpion can sting clothes or a sleeping bag very painfully.
Poison of scorpions
There are two principal views of their poison. The first can kill or paralyse bespozvonochnoe, but it is no more dangerous to the person, than a sting of a wasp. The second can be deadly - it will paralyse nerves of heart and pectoral muscles. Such poison meets at several kinds of scorpions. The dog perishes from it for seven minutes, and the person - in some hours. However antidote considerably reduces probability of a lethal outcome.
Though scorpions mainly live in places with a hot climate, them found practically on all sites of a land, except for Greenland and Antarctica, New Zealand and of some small islands. In Europe they met to Germany, and such kind as Euscorpius flavicuadis, has been found out even on British isles. However this scorpion is not dangerous to the person.
Hunting and a food
During hunting the scorpion finds extraction on movement of air streams or, probably, on soil fluctuations. Then it comes nearer to the victim, does a sharp throw and strong suffices extraction by claws. During this moment struggle is almost finished, as a scorpion if it is required, can start the knutovidnyj a tail and inject poison into a body of a victim.
At scorpions the small oral aperture, therefore on eating up of extraction at them leaves a lot of time. In the beginning they break off it on pieces the oral parts, and then soak up soft fabrics and juice of a victim in a stomach. Thanks to the effective system of digestion scorpions do not have necessity to eat every day. They do not require and plentiful drink as mechanisms of their body very well accumulate the water taken from juice of victims.
Some kinds of scorpions execute intricate "С‘С‚СЂС„С…СЃСЌв„–С‰ =СЂСЌС…С‡" which can last hours. The male holds a female for pedipalpy and drives it backwards-forward by the ground. It lets out sperm on the earth, gradually brings a female to this place and puts it so that it could absorb sperm the genitalnym an aperture. Pairing occurs repeatedly, and sperm any time remains active. One portion of sperm suffices for fertilisation of several broods.
The Period vynashivanija a female of eggs can last about one year. Depending on a kind the quantity of cubs fluctuates from 1 to 100. In case of occurrence of numerous posterity childbirth moivt to be stretched for some days, however the majority of scorpions give birth in two steps with an interval between them about 24 hours. As a rule, childbirth occurs in a night-time. Cubs spend the first days of a life on a back of mother, having nestled, to each other. Then they fade and get a rigid external skeleton. Now they are ready to an independent life.
Ancestors of scorpions
Scientists consider that ancestors of scorpions were, possibly, the first paukoobraznye, left water and adapted to a life on a land. The oldest fossil remains paukoobraznyh belong to a scorpion, their age about 400 million years. The structure of an organism of scorpions has appeared so successful that they have only slightly changed in this time to adapt for new living conditions.
Pseudo-scorpions are similar to scorpions tiny paukoobraznye. Them is about 2000 kinds, they do not have tail sting, and they are not dangerous to people. They kill extraction poisonous pedipaliami and seldom reach length more than 8 mm. These are the shy creations living mainly in the earth or under leaves. Like spiders, they weave silk and do of it cocoons, in which females postpone eggs. Young individuals do nests of silk in which they fade and winter.
Scorpions total Knutovidnye about 150 kinds. At 85 kinds the paunch comes to an end long knutovidnym with a tail, and the others - beshvostye. These scorpions kill extraction by a liquid stream, basically consisting of acetic acid. Are similar to them and representatives of other kind paukoobraznyh - mikrokputovidpye scorpions about whom a little that is known.
Long-legged paukoobraznye, known as senokostsy (in their USA name dolgonozhkami - in Britain this name designate long-legged dvukryloe an insect), consist in relationship with scorpions and superficially resemble spiders. In their world 3200 kinds in size from 1 mm to tropical giants with length of a trunk 20 mm are at length of feet 1Р±0 mm. The paunch and a breast at them are not divided.
Senokostsy - harmless creations. From all paukoobraznyh they are least choosy in meal and eat insects, fruit and small bespozvonochnymi. They basically hunt at night, are not poisonous and do not weave silk. Females postpone eggs in the earth or decaying wood by means of an oblong tube - jajtseklada.
The Most numerous representatives paukoobraznyh - akariformnye and iksodovye (parazitoformnye) pincers. It is known about 25 000 kinds, but them it can appear in 5 times more. They are extended almost all over the world - from tropics to polar regions. One pincers live in the earth, others live on plants, and many kinds parasitize on animals. Iksodovye pincers in the sizes more than akariformnye, but all of them blood-sicking also are carriers of many illnesses dangerous to the person and pets. Pincers can cause the big economic damage to farmers.