Animals and plants Plants and animals Fauna and plants Flora and animals Animals and plants


Pollination - the vital process for all floral plants, and the nature has much taken care of that it passed successfully.

Unlike animals, plants cannot move in search of the partner, and they should rely on the help of external forces (a wind, water, insects) to transfer pollen to other plant (or other part) for creation of new seeds.

Pollination so is important for a plant because kind preservation depends on it. And cross-pollination - when pollen is transferred on ryltse other flower, on the same plant or the friend, but the same kind - can lead to mutations which will help the given kind to adapt to environment better.

Pollination by a wind

Pollination by a wind when weightless pollen is transferred with air streams, is very extended in the nature. So many trees, as, for example, an oak, an ash-tree and a pine, and also corn and cereals are pollinated. Plants pollinated by a wind are compelled to make a pollen large quantity to increase chances of its hit on ryltse a corresponding plant. Pollen should be very easy, that "яы№=і" by air; it is almost weightless. If to stir up ripened ear ring of the hazel grove, a blossoming branch of a coniferous tree or timofeevku meadow, you will see the whole cloud of pollen in air. Some plants have tiny air vials which help pollen to hold on longer on a wind.


Pollination As a rule, flowers of the plants pollinated by insects, very bright also possess strong aroma. If separate florets are too small, they are grouped in inflorescences or settle down in an environment of multi-coloured leaves under the name pritsvetnik to draw attention of insects. "Нтх=№" the Mexican bush puansetii actually are pritsvetnikom, drawing attention of insects to imperceptible enough colours. Pollen grains of colours pollinated by insects usually are larger and rougher, than at the colours pollinated by a wind. They can be sticky to stick to insects.

Adaptation to insects

Pollination At the plants pollinated by insects, it is possible to observe extremely witty and inventive receptions of adaptation to them. Plants with opened (for example, daisies) or chashevidnymi (buttercups) colours are arranged so that can take advantage of services of all insects, whether it be the bee, a bug or an ant, and sometimes they do not disdain also the help of the small animals who have touched a flower. The insect can shake pollen from pylnika on ryltse or transfer it on other flower. Some flowers are more legible and can be pollinated with the help only one kind of insects. Flowers ljupina, a sweet pea and their close relatives are arranged so that reveal under weight of the insect who has sat down to them on "ъЁ№ы№°ъш" also let out stamens and ryltsa, rubbing against a little body of the visitor. At some plants insects with long hobotkom, such as moths and bees can pollinate flowers only. As an example of such plant the white can serve jasnotka. To reach the nectar hidden at the bottom of a flower, the insect should push a head deeply inside and closely to nestle on the bottom petal.

At this time pylnik or ryltse, located in the top petals, nestle on a back of an insect. At some plants with cross-pollination at first from a flower appears pylnik, and only when all pollen will get enough sleep, looks out ryltse that it, instead of pylniki, has come to direct contact to an insect. Entomophily is a principal view of pollination of colours, however in tropics of Australia and the South America pollination by birds is extended enough. It mainly the humming-bird, and frequently they of no more bumblebee. They suck nectar closed kljuvikom, using language as the piston.

Water pollination

It is the rare species of pollination, but it is the core for especially water blossoming plants - for example, zostery (a sea grass). Them niteobraznaja pollen with the relative density corresponding to density of sea water, can float on any depth while it will not grasp similar to a plumelet ryltse.