Partners and parasites
the Communities consisting of animal different kinds, in the nature meet not so often. If they arise, one of the parties receives everything, and another does not get anything; only in rare instances in a prize there are both partners.
Living in the warm seas tigrovaja a shark - the ruthless predator, ready to attack and devour everything that will appear on its way. The more surprisingly that it without everyone opaski often is followed by small black-and-white fishes-pilots. When the shark eats the extraction, fish-pilot dexterously picks up the meal rests, but looks in both that most not to get to a predator on a tooth.
Such interaction between two kinds is called kommensalizmom (sotrapeznichestvom) when one of partners (kommensal), all time keeps more close to other (owner), in any way thus, without influencing its health or a way of life. As an example that is served by a usual sparrow: it lodges near to the person and eats that remains after the person, but does not influence at all our life. More often we at all will not notice vorobyshka, waiting when it can peck the crumbs dropped by us.
However, kommensalizm there is seldom enough, as, by and large, each animal living near to another though somehow it yes influences. For example, the rat lives near to the person, like a sparrow, but eats, our supplies and extends an infection, that is lives at our expense. Such relations between kinds are called as parasitism; in relation to the person (owner) the rat is a parasite. On the other hand, a dog - the loyal friend of the person and the watchman of its dwelling in exchange for a forage and a shelter; such mutual relations favourable to both kinds, are called mutualizmom.
Having got accustomed to the bird's flight, we will notice that at times in it birds of different kinds are collected. Each kind of the feathery prefers "ётю¦" food, and all are fed in one territory, without disturbing each other and having something in common in the language. Thus they always on the alert: the more at flight of eyes, the above chance in time to see the hawk who has prepared for an attack. The bird who has noticed it first, submits an alarm signal distinguished by all its colleagues; they amicably scatter or occupy defence, leaving a predator with what.
Rachki living in lagoons round tropical reeves, see badly and consequently have got friends - shallow small fishes gobi. Rachki turn towards fishes the short moustaches and sensitively react on podragivanija their tails - a danger signal. Answering with service for service, rachki the wide and strong claws tear off for gobi shelters and together with small fishes hide in them when the predator comes nearer.
Such mutually advantageous interspecific relations first of all are inherent in sea fauna. As one more example of a mutual gain the union of a cancer-eremite with a predatory ground anemone serves. The eremite occupies the bowl dumped by another mollusc to protect the soft body, and at the same time gives it as an airfield supplied with poisonous feelers (and, means, to the reliable defender) to an anemone; both sea inhabitants move together, by common efforts finding food and eating that to whom to taste.
If fish-pilot and an anemone simply count that "ё=рЁ°шщ =ютрЁшЁ" itself will extract livelihood and something will leave, other animals behave more actively, specifying to partners sources of food and giving to them "ёхЁэютѕ¦" work. The unsurpassed master of such tactics is the African wood birdie-voskoed.
As it is clear from its name, for this little bird there is nothing better wax and larvae of wild bees. Having found out such nest and having found out that silenok to do in it a course to it does not suffice, voskoed with loud sounds tirelessly flits around medoeda (this animal which name too speaks for itself, appearance reminds a badger), its attention draws and conducts straight to a nest where the wood sweet tooth powerful claws takes honeycombs and joyfully licks honey, leaving wax and larvae to the not less happy feathery scout.
Many kinds of ants have found even more reliable way to provide the families food. Ants love pad - the sugary liquid which is let out by a green and black vegetative plant louse, and, instead of simply searching for nutritious gathering, have learnt to plant a plant louse just as farmers plant cows.
From tiny lumps of soil ants erect earthen tubes round stalks of plants on which the plant louse is fed; in these refuges she hides from predatory insects, like ladybirds or zlatoglazok, and pays to ants padju, regularly made by it from vegetative juice. Separate kinds of ants by way of gratuity carry away larvae of a plant louse and for maturing reliably hide them in own nests.
Some kinds of butterflies too have learnt to turn to themselves into the blessing love of ants to the sweet. Their caterpillars, like a plant louse, allocate the sugary liquid containing allocated pungent smell feromony. This fragrant cocktail so attracts ants that they vigilantly and jealously protect caterpillars - if only the drop of an invaluable liquid has got to them, instead of someone to another.
Caterpillars of some kinds of butterflies with might and main use ant weaknesses: ants so get drunk with them feromonov, what even allow caterpillars to eat the adored plant louses. The caterpillar of the butterfly-nebesnitsy was best arranged: the ants drugged by its aromas bring hitrunju in own nest where it starts to regale on ant larvae, without allowing to sober adult ants and treating with their next portions of exciting nectar. Certainly, at such game rules ants are doomed to loss; it is not present any to use from a caterpillar operating in relation to them as the real parasite.
Any organism using the owner as a source of food, is a parasite. Parasites happen different - from the fungoid outgrowths which are drying up trees, to the hyenas dragging another's extraction. However, a word "ярЁрчш=" usually causes in memory two categories of beings: those who lodges and lives in other organisms, and those who, having fixed on an integument of other animal, sucks its blood.
Each parasitizing organism has the owner; it is one, is more rare - two biological kinds, in representatives whom the parasite lodges. For example, tsepen, or a tape worm, - dreadful as if from a film of horrors, the being to 10 m at length - lives in a small intestine of the person and, eating its contents, can live some years. At regular intervals the worm dumps become obsolete and decaying tail segments of the body; they are deduced outside and contain on neskolku honeycombs of the eggs in due course turning to larvae of worms. If they will be swallowed by a cow or a pig (depending on a concrete kind tsepnja), they through intestines walls is got into blood of such time owner that then to be arranged in any body or muscles of an animal. If the person eats badly boiled thoroughly or fried thoroughly infected meat, the adult worm is formed of a larva in its organism, and all cycle will repeat at first.
As it is strange, the person at all does not notice that in it is tsepen, - unless eats it is more to support not only, but also a parasite. For the same better also cannot be: the more fine the organism of the owner, the is more reliable a haven. If the parasite takes away from the owner very much, and that will die, the worm, most likely, will follow the owner.
Not to fall a victim of destruction of own owners, some parasites have learnt to count the life cycle carefully. For example, on many caterpillars other insects parasitize; in particular, the front sights named equestrians, postpone in bodies of caterpillars of egg. Larvae developing from them eat an interior of a caterpillar and by the time of its destruction reach stages of an adult insect that then, having made an aperture in the remained cover, to come to light, get cocoons and to develop further.
Distributors of an infection
As the Reasons of many illnesses the microorganisms parasitizing on other animals serve. For example, sleepy illness is caused by a parasite breeding in a saliva of the African fly tsetse. When tsetse bites a cow or other warm-blooded animal, the parasite gets to an organism of the new owner where breeds in its central nervous system, causing drowsiness typical for named illness. The Organism-owner weakens, but will stretch some more years.
Infectious diseases extend a little differently. Pathogenic microorganisms pass from one owner to another. The most ominous example is the plague bacillus Pasteurella pestis. Among rats this batsillu is carried by fleas. The caught rats die, their number is reduced; fleas search, whom now to bite, and start to bite all coming across on their way warm-blooded, including the person. Consequences can be awful: epidemic 1348-50 which have become history as "ОхЁэр ёьхЁ=і" has cut a population of England by half and has ceased only because to fleas began there is nobody to direct the killing stings.
Fleas and pincers
When our far ancestors began to live in caves, to them from animal holes fleas that then centuries to teem vokrut the person were pulled. Rat fleas transferring a plague as required bite the person, a dog and even poultry: blood will get drunk and will skip away in a secluded place.
Pincers are similar to spiders, but it is less than them; they only eat blood though the adult tick can live till 7 years without meal. He waits all this time, when any warm-blooded will approach to it. If the animal or the person appears nearby, the tick will nimbly climb up it, will stick a prickly mouth into a body of a victim, will get drunk its blood and slezet to be cleaned back home.
However, kleshchiha will hang on the victim of days eight-nine, it will not be inflated yet till the sizes of the bulked up string bean and will not disappear to postpone some thousand eggs. To the male of the tick who has been not burdened with a continuation of the family, enough several hours to be sated. Thus, for all life at the tick can be only 3 or 4 meals that quite will suffice it both for itself, and for posterity.
Unlike pincers, louses spend all time on a body of the chosen owner. Actually, at many mammal and feathery "ётюш"т°ш, on other organisms not meeting. It is known two kinds of the human louse. At some louses have developed especial hvatatelnye the bodies adapted for concrete types of a hair covering and if such insect wants to catch another's hair or a strand of wood it can not be kept and will fall.
All skin parasites not only transfer an infection, but also exasperate the owners with the constant stings leading to irritations of a skin. Sometimes to the aid of sufferers other animals come.
Poedateli of parasites
In the African savanna on backs of grazed animals all time the small graceful birds nicknamed volokljujami take seat. Their diet consists exclusively of parasites, like pincers or mushinyh larvae, which they vyklevyvajut from a wool of large hoofed animals. Naturally, thick-skinned are grateful pichugam for rendered services and never drive them.
Similar interspecific relations develop and in sea depths where operating in a role of cleaners of a small fish and rachki eat away parasites from scales and a skin large, sometimes rather predatory fishes. Usually underwater cleaners concentrate in certain places at coral polyps where fishes requiring cleaning come from apart. During so necessary procedure it is necessary to suppress injurious habits: terrible for floating small fry the sea perch resolves thin and brisk "ѕсюЁЁшъѕ" to swim away to itself(himself) in a mouth where that zaglotnet branchiate parasites and will eat up the rests of food which are in intertooth cracks. It is difficult to imagine more impressing picture of confidential partner relations between strong and weak!