the Big panda
the Big panda - one of the most known, but also the most rare animals on a planet.
has got Wide popularity and love to a panda its charming and easily recognised appearance. This thickset clodhopper a constitution and appearance is similar to a bear. Primary colour of its shaggy fur coat white, but paws, a breast, shoulders and ears - black. The same black stains hide small, almost cat's eyes with vertical cuts of pupils.
Rather useful distinctive feature of a panda is similarity of a thumb on forepaws. Actually, it is the shoots which have acquired fleshy small pillows of carpal bones with which the panda dexterously suffices sterns.
Being able to stand on stocky hinder legs, the big pandas, nevertheless, always move on all four razvalistoj, clumsy gait. In case of a pursuit they pass to a clumsy lynx, but quickly get tired and do not maintain the taken rate. Excellent spidermen, they often get on the bottom branches of trees in search of a forage and also simply to have a rest or take cover from danger.
Where there live pandas
At liberty the big panda meets only in the few porosshih cold damp woods mountain areas of the Central and Southern China, at heights from 1200 to 4000 m. their favourite delicacy - a bamboo there grows. The total area of an area of their dwelling makes about 30 000 km, but it is considered that pandas live on a site no more than 6000 km 2 . In native woods each panda gets own territory which marks on boundary trees vydelenijami odorous glands. Sometimes these territories can partially coincide, but usually animal avoid each other, conducting a lonely way of life.
The Big pandas - the night animals who are awake from twilight till a dawn. In the afternoon they sleep and have a rest, but not in a constant den, and in a secluded place somewhere among rocks or even in a tree hollow.
That pandas eat
Though the big panda carry to carnivores, a basis of its diet the vegetative food, especially leaves makes, runaways and bamboo stalks. Having taken seat somewhere in bamboo thickets, the animal breaks off forepaws young plants and methodically eats all delicacy - leaves, runaways and stalks. At o'clock of wakefulness, i.e. About 16 hours per day, the panda almost all time is occupied by meal. To keep weight of a body, the bamboo large quantity - partly is required to it because the vegetarian food is not too nutritious, and partly because the digestive system of a panda not so is effective, as at other herbivores. If the majority travojadnyh acquires about 80% of food, a panda - only 17%.
Besides a bamboo, the big panda willingly eats also other vegetative forage - a grass, flowers, mushrooms, tubers, backs and a bark, and also small mammals and fish which manage to be caught. It will not disdain and drop. On bear manners of a panda arrange attacks and on beer nests.
The Season of pairing of the big pandas lasts from the middle of March till May, and at this time animals search to themselves for pair. 4-5 males but as soon as noisy pairing has taken place can apply for one female, animals come back to a former lonely way of life. Later 3-5 months the female finds a warm safe den in a cave or a hollow. Vysteliv a den leaves and branches, she gives birth to a tiny and helpless cub. Often on light there are two and even three bear cubs, but they demand such care and attention that the female usually brings up one, dooming the others to destruction.
Cubs of a panda
Pandas are born blind, almost naked and no more than 150 a female almost all time weigh First three weeks sits, without letting out the kid from forepaws and pressing the child to dummies. The cub quickly grows. By the end of the first month at it the fur with black marks grows, and after even two weeks eyes open. To go it begins only since three months, and before mummy constantly carries it on itself.
Since five months the kid passes to a bamboo forage, and in its month separate from a breast. At the age of 1-1,5 years the cub leaves mother and begins an independent life. The big pandas reach a sexual maturity by six years, and the female gives rise to a cub each 2-3 years. Because of slow rates of reproduction it is very difficult to achieve increase in number of the big pandas naturally.
For rather short term after opening of this kind number of the big pandas was so reduced that an animal have officially carried to number of the kinds which are on the verge of disappearance. By itself, the panda was considered as a valuable hunting trophy, but cutting down of woods - its environment of dwelling became the main reason of its extinction. As a result in small territories small isolated groups of pandas have remained that inevitably conducts to inbridingu and to easing of a specific genofund.
Besides it is known that bamboo plants, depending on a kind, perish each 40-120 years. During former times, wandering on huge territories, pandas simply got over there where was more bamboo. Now routes of their migration are often blocked by human settlements or agricultural grounds.
The Danger which has hung over the big pandas, this symbol of the World fund of wildlife management, has cleared interest all over the world, and from the end of 1950th years the Chinese government undertakes measures on their protection. In mountain areas 32 reserves for pandas with optimum conditions for their dwelling are created. The state center of science which is developing and putting into practice the programs on increase of number and studying of pandas under natural conditions operates also.
Under the forecast made once, by 2000 in the nature should not remain any big panda. However there is a hope that thanks to the international efforts this remarkable animal will remain in native mountain woods.