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Orang-utans

Gradual disappearance of rainforests of Asia threatens existence of two representatives of family of anthropoids - timid, separately living orangugana and a gregarious gibbon .

The Orang-utan and a gibbon concern family of monkeys. All of them are known as the Asian monkeys as occupy continent and islands of South East Asia. Graceful gibbons represent small anthropoids, and a majestic orang-utan - large.


the Orang-utan

Though exists to pour one kind of orang-utans, their two populations - on Borneo and Sumatra - differ from each other. The Sumatransky orang-utan has less massive constitution, more pale colouring, a long wool and the extended person.

The Orang-utan considerably exceeds on the sizes of gibbons. Its body is covered by long, red, shaggy hair, the person not grown; only adult males on Sumatra "эюё =" long beards. Adult males are almost twice larger than females, and the big fleshy outgrowths on each side the person in a kind "сръхэсрЁфют" a high fatty crest on top of a head and the big throat bag strengthening and without those loud shout of males, do their appearance of even more amazing.

By means of the long hands and feet the orang-utan moves in crones of trees. However the considerable weight reduces its mobility, defining a way of movement. Having extended a hand, it catches at the next branch and starts to approach furiously it, shaking all tree, will not grasp yet a branch, strong enough to sustain its weight. Thanks to the hooked fingers of a foot of an orang-utan remind hands more. On a tree it moves on all fours, clasping a branch feet and hands.

Feature of an orang-utan as primacy consists that he lives almost separately; long attachment remains only between a female and its unique cub. The adult male defines the territory. Orang-utans often fall outside the limits the sites. Having happened, adult individuals try not to notice each other though sometimes between them fierce and extremely noisy skirmishes flash.


nest Building

Orang-utans the Orang-utan conducts a day way of life. Despite the weight, the most part of time he spends on trees, even when builds to itself for night of a nest of leaves and rods. For this purpose it at first bends and weaves some strong branches. Sometimes before a dream the orang-utan covers with rods a head. With the years males spend more and more time for the earth, probably, because of weight which does their clumsy, complicating movement in crones of trees.

All day an orang-utan is occupied by food consumption. Massive jaws allow it to crack a shell of fruit to which it gives special preference. The orang-utan also eats leaves, nuts, runaways, a wood bark, insects, but also, the bird's eggs and small mammals.

The Big mental faculties help orang-utans to remember places where at various times year trees fructify. Orang-utans spend more time for a food, than gibbons, but cover thus for a day much smaller distances.

In territory of the adult male some females live also. When one of them shows a sexual susceptibility, both partners throughout approximately several weeks keep together, periodically coupling. As soon as the female will become pregnant, partners leave and any more have among themselves no anything the general. Thus, males couple with several females.


the Young orang-utan

After almost nine-monthly pregnancy the female gives rise to one cub. At first it all time clings to its wool, then moves nearby while after three years mother will not take away it from a breast. However he does not leave mother while it will not have other cub. Usually the period between detorozhdenijami lasts five years. Females breed almost to 30-year-old age.

Young men separate to establish borders of own territory. But as they just are above youthful age often play, forming unstable groups, is not reached yet a full maturity in 10-15 years.

Special difference of the mature male - impressively loud long shout before which the orang-utan usually breaks off from trees of a branch and throws them on the earth. Shout begins a series of the low sounds which loudness, gradually increasing, reaches a maximum and passes in a faltering roar before again falling to a low tonality. This shout lasting from one about three minutes, the orang-utan notifies vicinities on borders of the possession and, probably, calls females.


Gibbons

Obviously distinguishable kinds of gibbons evolved from the general ancestor existing about one million years ago. From nine kinds of gibbons, or the small anthropoids, eight about identical the size though they considerably differ on colour. Their sites of dwelling do not coincide. The ninth kind, siamang, more largely also meets in the same geographical area, as other two kinds - a gibbon lar and a fast gibbon.


Force of hands

Orang-utans Gibbons have lines, the general for all anthropoids: long hands, rather long thin legs, absence of a tail, a dense and long wool, the person black and hairless, - though a bearing vertical, and a muzzle less extended. By means of the long strong hands gibbons move on branches of trees with tremendous speed. This way of movement is known as "сЁр§шю=юЁэ№щ". Gibbons "ых=р¦=" between the branches which sometimes have been kept away from each other of metres on 15, as though hardly concerning of them. Long fingers of monkeys as if hooks clasp each branch. Quick gibbons run on the most thin branches, balancing only on hind legs. But the most distinctive feature of gibbons is their surprising "яхёэ " which they, usually at a dawn, disclose woods.


a family Life

All gibbons all day long conduct an active way of life, having a rest at the hottest midday o'clock, and sleep on branches of trees at night, usually having constructed itself a cosy nest of leaves and rods.

The Majority of kinds of gibbons live the family groups consisting of the male, a female and to four cubs. Obviously, more often gibbons parujutsja on all life. Males of gibbons of Klossa practically do not support close contacts to group: sleep separately, and during movement keep behind or sideways from a female and cubs.

Each group has the territory in which limits she sleeps and is fed also which protects from encroachments of other groups. It is established that on 1 км2 woods usually it is necessary from two to four family groups. Small gibbons pass in these limits for a day of 1-1,5 km, and big siamang covers only half of this distance.

Gibbons spend the Considerable part of active time of days, eating or moving between trees in search of food. Like orang-utans, they prefer mature fruit and check them on a maturity as people, - feeling big and index fingers.

Except fruit, gibbons eat leaves and in small amounts of insects and spiders which supply with their some animal protein. Food, gibbons collect a hand, hanging down on other hand from a branch. Various kinds of gibbons occupy different territories as if these territories coincided kinds should struggle among themselves for food. Siamang, however, co-exists in the territories with small gibbons because for a day he eats much more leaves. It gives the chance to it to remain and be fed on more limited site while small gibbons reach its most borders, collecting fruit from the most thin and flexible branches which in any way would not sustain weight of heavier siamanga.


Mother and the child

Gibbons couple each two-three years and after seven - eight-monthly pregnancies the female gives rise to one cub. Some time the kid constantly keeps for a breast of mother which, nevertheless, rushes between trees in search of food. The first year mother carefully preserves the child and constantly nurses. At the very beginning of the second year it separates it. At three-year age young gibbons already move independently, though still as a part of family group. Approximately in six years they already absolutely adult, but usually passes still couple of years before they separate from group and start to search to itself for the partner.


Singing as dialogue means

"¤хэшх" - the vital element of social behaviour of gibbons. Songs are executed every day or with different intervals about five days and sound usually at a dawn from ten minutes till two o'clock. At the majority of kinds of gibbons it is a duet of the male and a female of the given family group. With the years the youth too sometimes takes part in family singing. Some kinds, especially at siamangov, have big throat bags which during singing are inflated and operate as resonators.


Solo singing

The Sounds published by gibbons, are very various on tone and character: here both squeal, and bark, both trills, and whistle, and gurgle, and shchebetanie. Each kind differs original shouts. Usually a female and the male, having taken seat on a branch, begin, as all great singers, with "Ёрёяхтъш". Then they alternately sing a harmonious duet.

At some kinds, especially at gibbons of Klossa, solo singing practises; that is known as "тхышър  яхёэ " the female executes. Usually, having climbed up tree top, she starts to sing before the dawn. When singing reaches the culminations, it rushes between trees, on the move breaking leaves and rods. Other members of group too start to rush on branches, breaking leaves. Singing turns to the present family show. Shouts of these monkeys, obviously, are various according to the destination. Undoubtedly that, on the one hand, this notification of the next groups about the property on territory and its borders, and with another - about communication between the male and a female. Besides, the song of a female, obviously, warns other females probably searching for the partner that this male is already occupied.


Protection

Existence of all kinds of the Asian monkeys is under the threat. In the past them caught in considerable quantities to tame or give to a museum. Thus adults quite often killed to take hold of kids, and those often perished on road to a place of their maintenance.

However today the main threat proceeds from constant destruction of their native jungle and rainforests. Unfortunately, to the greatest risk, obviously, the large anthropoid - an orang-utan is subject. As supervision testify, it having appeared necessarily in more limited territory, adult individuals become more aggressive under the relation to each other, and courting and reproduction level falls.