Moustached whales - one of the greatest animals of our planet. Their number includes the largest inhabitant of the Earth for all its history - a blue whale.
Whales - warm-blooded sea mammals, whose ancestors lived on a land. They accurately share on two groups: zubatye (which dolphins concern also) and moustached whales. Like overland mammals, whales breathe air and raise cubs milk.
Moustached whales possess a special talent to adaptation. Average length of biggest of them - a blue whale - 26 m at weight of 150 tons. There is a weighty reason for such sizes: the water temperature at ocean usually much more below temperature of their blood and consequently, as well as other mammals living in water, whales risk to be lost from overcooling.
However the big bodies have the smaller area of a surface concerning the weight, and large animals give less than heat to water, than small. The isolating layer vorvani allows to keep internal temperature 36-37°С. At a polar whale the thickness of a layer of this fat reaches to 50 Vorvan see does not fasten motionlessly to nizheraspolozhennym to muscles - it is pliable as a pillow. It allows a huge whale to move easily in water, without creating thus excessive turbulence, and in addition to save energy. Fat also is in a liver and in a considerable quantity - in bones.
Moustached whales eat less, than it would be possible to expect from such giants. Thanks to the "ІэхЁуюёсхЁхур¦Ёхьѕ" to a constitution, whales for preservation it is warm the food small amount, namely a plankton is necessary rather. These floating plants and animals are the richest power supply for sea mammals. However, in view of microscopic size of a plankton, it is difficult for extracting in sufficient quantity for livelihood.
the Whale moustache
As a result of evolution moustached whales had a special formation - a whale moustache, - allowing them to eat exclusively plankton. These fleecy horn plates are similar to a brush, but operate as a sieve, filtering a plankton from tons of water which is pushed out in the course of a food from a mouth of a whale. The whale moustache was formed not of a teeth, and from palatal ledges.
At various kinds of moustached whales the mouth structure was formed differently, depending on a kind of the plankton entering into their diet. So the big whales have divided ocean resources among themselves. Blue whales and to it similar, having long and thin plates of a whale moustache, can eat smaller Crustacea as a part of a plankton, such as kril.
The Greatest plates are required to the Greenland and polar whales, "ёэшьр¦Ёшь" a blanket of water in search of food. Blue whales, financial shaft and sejvaly apply a method "сюыі°юую уыю=ър" swallowing huge a quantity of water with a plankton and attacking congestions of microorganisms sideways or from below. Some kinds of whales use both receptions. Plates of a whale moustache heavy, therefore the head of a whale should be the corresponding sizes to bear this weight. The head occupies 40% of length of a body from the Greenland whales, and cervical vertebras have grown together to maintain such loading.
All moustached whales migrate. But it not aimless wandering, and the slow travel well planned in time between cold waters of Arctic regions abounding with food and Antarctics and places of deducing of posterity in a tropical zone. Moustached whales breed only time in two-three years. At the time of delivery to a female help a little "яютш=ѕ§" - whales of its flight who support a cub when it is born, and take out it on a surface that it could take the first sip of air. The newborn kitenka still does not have thick layer vorvani, and he is not able to breathe and float correctly yet. The whale young growth eats parent milk and quickly grows. However adult individuals in tropical waters of food have not enough, and they are compelled to fast before arrival of summer. By this time young whales already have a protective layer vorvani, sufficient for a survival in cold waters of planktonic pastures.
The Musician and the acrobat - the unusual characteristic for a whale in length of 14-17 metres also is powerful 65 tons. However scientists have collected a huge record library of such songs: long series of groans, lows, a gnash, grunting and shchebetanija which can sound within 10-15 minutes, and then repeat many hours successively.
At each population gorbachej the special song which develops and changes every year. It is transferred on water to distance to 185 km. Allowing gorbacham to keep in contact.
the Southern whale
Southern whales do not have back fin and throat furrows, but is zatverdelosti on a head and near dyhala. In their world remains no more than 2000. They live on small depths and migrate in the winter to warm equatorial waters for posterity deducing.
Females feed cubs with milk within a year and as early as 2-3 years look after them during slow travel on oceans.
the Grey whale
The Grey whale can be observed often near to coast. In the summer it migrates to feeding places in Arctic regions where thanks to long sunny days grows huge "ѕЁюцрщ* microorganisms. Grey whales eat on melkokolepnuju a streamline. Under a chin there is a number of furrows, or throat folds which last to a belly. When the whale types a full mouth of water, folds are straightened to contain ulov. At a blue whale rough enough bristle of a whale moustache, also eats it almost exclusively krilem - krevetkopodobnymi rachkami, present at waters of Antarctic in southern summer. They so gorge on krilem that they do not have need to eat in water hearts, small Crustacea and the molluscs living at an ocean bottom. Ploughing up lateral motions ground adjournment, they suck in considerable quantities bespozvonochnyh together with silt, sand and a pebble.
the Blue whale
As well as all polosatikovye. The blue whale, despite the sizes, has conducted time of migration or visiting of places of deducing of posterity.
Blue whales live till 80 years. Ruthless destruction in the past has led to that now they are a vanishing species. The sexual maturity at them comes, when dojna their bodies are reached by 23 m. of the Female bring posterity of times in three years. If not to protect the basic foodstuff of blue whales - kril - from pollution, their former number can be hardly restored.