Hyenas live across all Africa, in the Near East and in India. Though hyenas are known as padalshchiki, to their kind one of the most skilful and perfect predators belongs.
Hyenas evolved to a modern kind in the end miotsena (9±3 million years ago). Their ancestors concerned family viverrovyh, and the first representatives of a kind of hyenas were outwardly similar on viverr, or tsivett. It is fished that stage of development in them there was the strong teeth capable razgryzt a bone. And today such teeth is a distinctive feature of one of nowadays existing kinds. In plejstotsene which has begun about 2 million years ago, there was an animal known under the name of a cave hyena. It was twice more than largest of recent hyenas.
the Spotty hyena - the largest and the most widespread in Africa. The inhabitancy at it is very various - deserts, bushes, woods in territory of all Africa to the south from Sahara, except for the extreme south and a river basin of Congo. In the same territory there live also other two kinds of hyenas. Fur at a spotty hyena long and rigid, colours khaki or light brown with dark stains of the wrong form. Tips of paws and a tail and a muzzle - dark brown or even black, and on a neck and shoulders - a short rigid mane.
The Brown hyena occupies the smallest territory, but is, seemingly, capable to survive almost in any area of dwelling. It meets in desert, on sites, porosshih a grass and a bush, in wood and at coast of Southern Africa. Its dark brown fur much more lengths it and shaggier, than at a spotty hyena. Especially dense it on shoulders and on a back. Therefore the hyena looks larger, than it is actually.
The Striped hyena - smallest of three kinds - lives to the north of the relatives. She prefers open district in the east and the north of Africa, in the Near East, in Arabia, India and in the southwest of the former Soviet Union. She seldom settles further, than for) km from water. At it grey or light brown fur, duck and shaggy, with cross-section dark brown strips, and - the rigid mane in length to 20 see a back
At all hyenas shoulders above a back part of a body, and the backbone settles down not in parallel the earth, and under a considerable corner. At them jumping up shaking gait because they are amblers. At spotty hyenas ears rounded off, and at brown and striped - pointed.
the Way of life of a hyena
Though hyenas can be met in the afternoon, they are more active in twilight and in a night-time, and prefer to have a rest in a den or near it in the afternoon. The house of a hyena equip or, expanding holes of other animals, or having found a secluded place among rocks or in wood. Hyenas are very adhered to the territory, sharp-sightedly protect space round a den, and also consider as the larger hunting site. The sizes of this site can vary considerably, they depend on quantity and availability of food. Hyenas mark borders take down territories vydelenijami from analnyh glands and aromatic glands between fingers of paws, and also urine and excrements. The most developed analnye aromatic glands - at a brown hyena. It allocates two kinds of a secret - white and black paste with which marks mainly a grass.
Spotty hyenas, perhaps, most social of all hyenas. They live the big groups, or clans in which can be to 80 individuals. More often the clan consists of 15 animals. The female of a hyena is more than male also occupies predominating position that infrequently meets among predators.
Ceremony of a greeting at both floors and all age difficult enough - each animal podymaet a hinder leg that another could smell its genitals. They also keep in touch shouts and other sounds from which only the few are caught by a human ear. At hyenas a loud distinct voice, it is possible to hear them for some kilometres. Sometimes a spotty hyena name laughing because of its shout similar to a laughter. Brown hyenas conduct more lonely way of life. They live families from 4-6 individuals, and hunt alone. As a sign of a greeting brown hyenas too sniff each other, a head and a body, oshchetinivaja thus at a mane, but they make much less than different sounds.
Until recently was considered that all hyenas - padalshchiki and eat the rests of corpses of the animals killed by other predators. There was, however, that a spotty hyena, thanks to the acute eyesight, excellent sense of smell, and also a social way of life - one of the most skilful and dangerous predators.
The Spotty hyena can hunt in loneliness, but often pursues extraction by flight. Hyenas accelerate momentum to 65 km/hour therefore can catch up with such animals as a zebra and an antelope I bend. They suffice a victim for feet or for sides and hold its death grip while it will not fall. Then all flight snatches a pas it and in a literal sense breaks off on pieces. The hyena can eat 15 kg of meat at one go. More often they pursue antelopes shortly after at those cubs because kids represent an easy mark were born.
Jaws of a spotty hyena - one of the most powerful among all predators. Them it can frighten off even a lion and a tiger and without effort razgryzt the largest bones of a buffalo. The digestive system of hyenas is arranged so that is capable to digest bones. Their excrements of white colour because of the high maintenance of calcium from the eaten bones.
A Food of a spotty hyena depends on a place of its dwelling and a season. The menu of a hyena include a rhinoceros, lions, leopards, elephants, buffalo s and all kinds of antelopes which live in an area of their dwelling, and also insects, the reptile and has some grass. They eat any drop which meets at them on a way, and sometimes rummage in garbage near human dwelling. On the killed victim always it is a lot of applicants, therefore animals tear off from a corpse as it is possible bolshy a piece and run off with it aside that somebody has not pulled out meat at them from a teeth.
Brown and striped hyenas - less aggressive hunters. Is more often they eat drop, finding it by means of sharp sense of smell. They hunt alone and steams. More often house lambs and kids become their extraction small pozvonochnye, and also. Insects enter into their diet, eggs, fruit and vegetables also. If the hyena finds big tungu, it can otgryzt a piece more and hide it in a secluded place, to have dinner it next time. Brown hyenas eat also the dead fish cast ashore and corpses of sea animals.
Time which hyenas spend for hunting and livelihood searches, depends on availability of food. Brown hyenas spend for searches of meal for 10 and more hours a day.
Hyenas at any time year Breed, however the greatest quantity of kids is born during the period from August till January. Spotty hyenas couple with members of the clan, at brown - the male-traveller couples with a female living in group who has met to it on a way. Pregnancy lasts at a brown hyena of 110 days. The dung consists of two puppies more often. Childbirth occurs in a hole - the big hole on open district, porosshej a grass (the part of such landscape is visible in a photo). Some females gather in one hole and together bring into the world posterity. Unlike almost all predators, dark brown puppies are born with open eyes. Besides, at them already is zubki. In case of need puppies can run right after births.
All puppies remain in a hole under supervision of one or two females. They approach to an earth surface that mother could feed with their milk, but with a view of safety do not leave a hole while by it it will not be executed about 8 months. At this age they go with mum on hunting or for food searches. Hyenas never bring extraction in a hole that predators could not define a refuge site on a strong smell of drop. Stains appear in 4 months. In a year-one and a half of puppies "ю=ыѕёр¦= from уЁѕфш".
At brown and striped hyenas the period of pregnancy is shorter - 90 days. The dung of a brown hyena consists of two puppies, striped - from five. At both kinds puppies are born blind and defenceless, eyes open at them in two weeks. In family groups of brown hyenas feed the kid with milk can not only mother, but any of females. After to puppies it will be executed three months, all members of family will carry it food in a hole.
By the end of the first year mother ceases to feed puppies with milk, but some more months they remain in family.
In first half XX century of hyenas considered as the wreckers dangerous to inhabitants of reserves, and destroyed. This kind has been almost exterminated in the south of the republic of South Africa. Thanks to collective hunting and social distribution of food, spotty hyenas resisted to aggression of the person, than other two kinds more successfully, and have remained in bolshem quantity.
Brown and striped hyenas are in many regions on the verge of disappearance. The person has practically exterminated them because they cause a damage to its housekeeping. One more reason of reduction of number of a kind is active development by the person of the new earths and a competition to more adapted kind - spotty hyenas.