Elephants, trubkozuby and damany
In the world has remained only two kinds of elephants - African and it an a bit smaller Indian colleague. But this mighty animal has two distant relatives unlike it. He/she is the African anteater (trubkozub) and similar to a rabbit daman.
Elephants - the largest and heavy inhabitants of our planet. They are owners of the longest teeth, the longest noses and, perhaps, the strongest memory among all animals Elephants who often name "фюсЁюфѕ°э№ьш тхышърэрьш" are very vulnerable and emotional. Members of one family always are very adhered to each other. Unfortunately, because of the tusks, the well-known ivory, elephants became object of the ruthless hunting which have put them on a side of extinction.
Champions of weight
Almost a quarter of gross weight of an elephant - and the male of the African elephant can weigh more than 6000 kg - it is necessary on a head. It is the massive design burdened also the special device for food intake - powerful chewing muscles, molars, a trunk and tusks.
Tusks are the extended top cutters. With their help the elephant undermines roots and barks trees. During the marriage period they serve males as the weapon in duels. Unlike a usual teeth, tusks grow at an elephant all life. At one aged African elephant the tusks bent in an arch have grown to 3 with superfluous metres.
The Head of an elephant keeps on short, strong, but an inactive neck. Because of it it cannot reach a mouth the earth. During evolution this lack has been filled by a long brawny shoot - an accrete upper lip and a nose, i.e. A trunk. This surprising body is supplied by thousand muscles and is capable to carry out the most different functions - to break fruits, to involve water from a reservoir, to break branches and to uproot trees. The trunk sensitively catches smells and touches, and with its help elephants study unfamiliar subjects, welcome relatives and even stroke potential sexual partners.
The elephant bears The enormous weight with extraordinary grace, in regular intervals distributing weight on strong feet. The elephant, as well as a horse, goes into fingers. They are widely placed and supported by an elastic porous fabric of a round sole. The sole is covered by a thick layer of a skin which is constantly updated in process of deterioration. Despite a clumsy kind, the elephant is very mobile and capable to move almost on any district - from marshy topej to abrupt hillsides, almost without leaving traces on stony soil. This giant well floats and is forwarded through the rivers and lakes, using a trunk as a respiratory tube.
the African and Indian elephants
There are only two kinds of elephants - African and Indian (Asian). It is the most easier to distinguish them in the sizes (the African elephants much more largely and more hard) and on size of ears and tusks. At the Indian elephant more convex skull.
For millenia to all elephants, especially African, it was necessary to adapt to different living conditions. When almost all land has been covered by woods, all of them were wood inhabitants. With climate changes the shape of the earth changed, and today elephants live in woods and savannas. The steppe elephant can be met even in sahele - region of Africa to the south from Sahara. Wood elephants occupy extensive regions - from the Western Africa to pool of Congo. The majority of the Indian elephants lives in woods, but some meet on plains and in bogs.
Being travojadnymi, elephants willingly eat any vegetative forage - a grass, leaves, stalks, fruits, flowers, branches, trunks and even roots of trees. In day it is required to an elephant to 225 kg of a forage which he eats approximately for 16 hours.
Water - and it it is necessary much - the elephant drinks by means of a trunk. The African elephant can involve at one go in a trunk to 5 l of water. At first it involves water in a trunk and closes it, then brings a trunk tip to a mouth and blows there contents. Small elephant calves drink water a mouth, managing at first without a trunk.
In search of water and nishchi the elephant passes every day many kilometres. In Africa during a dry season it is difficult to find water, and elephants make long transitions to reach a watering place. Every year they come to the same place and never forget, where there is a water. The Indian elephants live in 1устых woods where the climate is softer and consequently they do not have need to be started up in distant wanderings.
Adult males live independently or groups of several individuals, and a female with cubs - in numerous families. Each group the old female connected by bonds of relationship with all adult members of a family, and already too old leads to have the posterity. Possessing a wide experience, she solves, where herd to go than to be fed, where to drink water and where to have a rest. Adult males for a short while visit herd to couple with females, but do not participate in education of cubs. Sometimes they enter with each other deadly duels for the right to couple with a female.
Pregnancy of a female of the African elephant lasts 22 months (Indian - 21). Usually on light there is one cub. The weight of the newborn about 100 kg, growth is no more 1 m. First two years of a life the elephant calf eats parent milk, being trained to use in the meantime a trunk, will not learn to burn a grass and a bush yet. Reached sexual a maturity (is elderly about 14 years) young males expel from herd not to admit their pairing with members of the family. Females remain in herd on all life and look after kids while it will not come it is time to get the posterity.
Related communications in group are very strong, and all help to raise and protect elephant calves. Sometimes at a meeting elephants run to each other, loudly blowing in a greeting sign. If all is good, elephants encourage each other rolling basovitym rumbling. But at the slightest threat they become silent, and adults surround kids with a dense ring, saving them from danger.
Elephants on the death of the relative very touchingly react. Often they long stand at a dead body, touching and stroking its trunk, and sometimes even try to earth it. It is visible that mother of the lost elephant calf endures the present grief. Quite often it selects a body of a dead cub, carries away it in a secluded place and does not leave some days.
Tusks of elephants
Tusks - a unique source of an ivory, a material which always was highly appreciated by the person. In olden time, before occurrence of cars and rifles, an elephant that was extremely difficult not what to kill, but even to track down. However with the advent of the car people without effort began to exhaust elephants and to shoot them from safe distance. The large quantity of elephants has been killed for the sake of an ivory, and soon these fine animals have appeared on the verge of a total disappearance. In 1979 in Africa was about 1,3 million elephants. By 1989 poachers have reduced this figure approximately to 600 thousand alarm Growing all over the world for the future of these animals has led to introduction in 1989 of the international interdiction for trade in an ivory which has yeilded tangible results. Demand for an ivory has sharply fallen, the prices have decreased, trade was sharply reduced. In 1995 in Africa still was about 600 thousand elephants. The destiny of the Indian elephant has developed less favorably. Now in the wild nature (first of all, in India) has remained no more than 35-54 thousand elephants - mainly, because of destruction of environment of their natural dwelling. 16 thousand more have tamed and use on different works across all Asia.
Today an elephant - the only thing on the earth a herbivore with a trunk. Millions years ago a planet occupied about 350 kinds proboscidae (i.e. The animals having a trunk). Their descendants and distant relatives of elephants are present lamantiny and sea cows.
However this giant has two much more the near relation. He/she is the African anteater (trubkozub) and daman. And elephants, both trubkozuby, and damany concern to "яЁшьш=штэ№ь ъюя№=э№ь". Their claws were flattened out and have turned in due course to nails, but did not become hoofs. From here their name "яЁшьш=штэ№х".
Damany and trubkozuby
Damany are small animals similar to rabbits with short ears and a tail. They live in Africa and in the Near East. The majority of them in size with a hare, and some - about a small dog.
At wood damana, living on trees in the African woods, paws are perfectly adapted for lazanija. It conducts a lonely nocturnalism.
Kustarnikovye and mountain damany live on rocky hills of the East African plains. Sometimes they live the mixed groups of several honeycombs of the individuals headed by large males. Damany communicate with each other shouts and whistle. During feeding the elder sits somewhere on a stone, observing of vicinities. At occurrence of danger of guards warns the others, and all flock immediately rushes nautek.
Similar to a pig trubkozub conducts a lonely way of life in savannas of the Central and Southern Africa. The male keeps aloof and meets a female only for pairing. The female usually lives together with the unique offspring. Trubkozub eats ants and termites, digging out extraction extended narrow ryltsem. This timid animal can pass more than 10 km in search of ant nests or termitaries, being guided by a delicate ear and extremely sensitive sense of smell.
Long and sharp claws serve it excellent shantsevym as the tool. Having dug out in a termitary a pole powerful blows of paws, trubkozub thrusts there mobile ryltse and pinches insects long, narrow and sticky language. Trubkozuby - fine navvies. This animal is capable to dig the metre tunnel much faster, than group of the navvies armed with shovels. At the sight of a hyena, a leopard or a lion it instantly digs out a hole in the earth and buries in it with a head. However, sometimes trubkozub attacks the enemy, putting blows by a powerful tail and forepaws.