Deer, giraffes and antelopes
Deer, antelopes and lanky, a bit inconsistent giraffes concern group of artiodactyl ruminants. Hastily swallowed food is stored in one of their four stomachs, and later otrygivaetsja for more careful chewing.
In total in Europe, the North Africa, Asia and both Americas 36 kinds of deer are. Rather recently they have been delivered to Australia and New Zealand.
Deer - unique animals at whom on vyrostah frontal bones branchy bone formations, or horns settle down. Except for one - two kinds, horns decorate only males. Every year old horns fall down, and on their place the new grow. During the period gona, i.e. A season of pairing, a horn serve males as the weapon for duels for a female. Deer usually live large herds, wandering from place to place in search of a forage. Eat a bark, kidneys, runaways and foliage of trees and bushes.
Deer of Eurasia
The Most widespread European kinds are a babe a fallow deer in height in holke 1 m and a majestic red deer, whose growth reaches 1,2 m.
In the wild nature of a fallow deer meet in the south of Europe, in Turkey and here and there in the northwest of Africa. In Northern Europe and Great Britain fallow deer live in parks as decorative animals. Red deer widespread almost in all Europe, Northwest Africa where them name berberskimi deer, and in Iran. In close relationship with them the American red deer consists vapiti, or.
The reindeer lives In Lapland and on the Far North Russia. The warm shaggy fur and a thick layer of hypodermic fat allow it to survive in severe conditions of the Arctic winter.
The Largest representative of all olenego a tribe is almost two-metre European elk. This near relation of the American elk widespread in Scandinavia, the Eastern Europe and Siberia where chooses for dwelling deciduous woods, bogs and peatbogs.
From the Asian kinds the Indian marsh deer, or barasingu is known. In India, Sri Lanka, larger lives in South East Asia, China and on Philippines zambar in weight to 320 kg. But, perhaps, all are surpassed beauty by a deer aksis with its ryzhevato-brown fur coat covered with white specks. It is found in India and Sri Lanka, wandering herds to 100 and more individuals.
Small Indian muntzhak growth does not exceed semimeter. It often name a barking deer because of a voice similar to the dog bark. Small horns at it short, but it not without success is protected by pair sharp canines. As the Chinese water deer is insignificant also.
David's deer became the Present rarity. By 1900 it has been completely exterminated in native China, but, fortunately, diligence of the duke of Bedfordsky Uobern in an English estate the small herd which posterity has been dispatched in due course in many zoos, including Peking has remained.
Various kinds of deer richly and western hemisphere. The American elk is necessary the close relative to the American red deer and in many respects to it is similar. One more known American - karibu, or a reindeer. Distinguish two kinds of this animal - wood and tundra. Wood karibu live in dense woods of Canada and northern states of the USA. Tundra karibu there is less growth also their wood colleagues are more light colouring, rather than. They winter in woods, and for the summer remove to the Arctic tundra.
More often in the wild nature meets graceful white-tailed, or virginsky, a deer living in the North America, Bolivia, in all three Gvianah and Peru. Growth of this animal does not exceed 1 m. In the western regions of the North America the deer with long, as at the mule, ears is found similar to it chernohvostyj, or asinine. Both those, and others differ a manner highly to jump up on the run.
Brown and red deer mazama are found in tropical widths. In close relationship with them the small consists in the world the Chilean deer to pood. Its height in holke does not exceed 30 see the Largest in the South America the marsh deer in height to 1,2 m. is
Annually all females who have reached to a sexual maturity are impregnated by the leader of herd. After the pregnancy lasting at different kinds from 25 till 40 weeks, the female gives birth to one - two cubs. Usually females breed in any secluded corner, and, before to join herd together with mother, cubs hide some more weeks in shelter.
Antelopes differ from deer the direct horns hollow and deprived of shoots. The family of antelopes amazes with variety of forms and the sizes. Growth of some giants, for example, kanny, reaches 2 m. But there are also kids - will tell, the height in holke a dwarfish antelope makes only about a metre quarter. Almost all antelopes live in Africa, some kinds - in Asia. And the so-called American antelope, or vilorog, despite the name, is not the close relative of antelopes. Both males, and females of this family carry horns, but unlike deer do not dump them every year. On tournaments during a season of pairing males of antelopes like deer use horns as the weapon.
Some kinds of antelopes live in woods, on hillsides or on bogs, but the majority wanders huge herds on open spaces of dry savannas of East and Southern Africa. At the slightest threat all swift-footed herd amicably seeks safety in flight. Almost at all antelopes the skin is covered by the short, monophonically painted wool of different shades of grey or ryzhevato-brown colours. Distinguish four basic groups of antelopes: vintorogie kudu and bushboki; dukery; sablerogie, or horse, antelopes; gazelles.
The group bushbokov and kudu which males are decorated by spirally twirled horns, includes also a sort olenebykov. Kudu - tall enough animal with the horns similar to a corkscrew, living in dumetose savannas. Here herds of largest of the African antelopes - kanny are grazed. The height in holke makes the male of this kind about 1,5 m. rather small bushboki prefer woods. Their oranzhevo-brown sides are painted by bright cross-section strips.
To group vintorogih two Asian kinds belong also. On open plains of India the antelope nilgau with short conic small horns is found, and in a dense underbrush of tropical jungle there lives small chetyrehrogaja an antelope - as a matter of fact, the unique owner of four horns.
Antelopes-dukery, getting away from hunters or predators, confuse a pursuit, alternating wide zigzags here and there to high jumpings up. These antelopes are found in woods and kustarnikovyh thickets of the Central and Southern Africa.
The group sablerogih includes a great number of large and average animals. Two kinds of this group - horse and black antelopes use special popularity, whose long ears do their similar to horses. They live herds: horse - on open spaces to the south from equator, and black - in the Central and East Africa. The mention two more kinds - marsh and water goats deserve. Both keep nearby from water where hide from predators because of what them often name marsh antelopes.
Number of large representatives of this group concern oriks, or sernobyk (small population oriksov lives and in Saudi Arabia), long-nosed bubaly, or the cow antelopes, with their horns similar to lyre, and the well-known antelopes of a gnu. Bubaly and gnus are found in savannas much and do not differ special beauty, superficially resembling a hybrid between a horse and a buffalo.
Unlike bubalov and a gnu, gazelles long since are considered as recognised beauties among antelopes. These harmonous swift-footed animals are perfectly adapted for a life in hot droughty regions of Africa and Asia. To them belong springbok, in case of danger jumping up on 2 m, impala, moving long jumps, and vintorogaja garna, not knowing to itself equal in run in all India.
The Six-metre giraffe - highest of mammals - is easy for learning on long long-legged feet and longer neck. High growth and an inconsistent kind do it, at first sight, enough easy mark, however it is capable to accelerate momentum to 50 km/hour and to strike the enemy powerful blow of feet. It is enough one blow of a back hoof to kill a lion. Short small horns of a giraffe, unlike olenih horns, serve it all life, however unique colour to its shape spotty zolotisto-brown colouring gives.
the Way of life of a giraffe
Giraffes are found in many regions of Africa, preferring vysokotrave dumetose savannas, where enough their favourite forage - foliage of acacias and mimosas. And as trees grow in savannas small islets, giraffes wander to feeding places small groups to 30 individuals, consisting of several females with cubs and the leader.
Males quite often start skirmishes for the right to couple with a female, and pairing occurs at any time year - the period gona at a giraffe does not exist. During a duel duelists exchange hard blows a head - it, by the way, weighs to 45 kg - and long necks. After 4-month's pregnancy on light there are cubs who in 20 minutes are capable to stand on the feet. Life expectancy a giraffe - till 30 years.
The giraffe has only one relative - okapi. This animal is so reserved that Europeans have seen it for the first time only in 1901 Okapi lives in rainforests of the Central Africa, its growth in holke reaches 1,5 m, and shorter sloping neck distinguishes from its giraffe. Colour of a wool - krasnovato-brown with cream strips standing. At males grow similar on zhirafi small horns. Okapi live the groups consisting usually from one male and two females with cubs.