the General term "чрсюыюёхээ№х =хЁЁш=юЁшш" name great variety of the rehumidified or semiflooded sites of a land - both in continents, and at sea and oceanic coasts. It can be deltas and pojmy the rivers, marshy lowlands, mangrovye woods, peatbogs and usual bogs.
Boggy territories are extraordinary favorable for dwelling and are fertile. In their warm sleepy waters loads and loads fishes, on juicy raznotrave the livestock, and in dense canes - a real paradise for wild animals is grazed. The fauna, first of all, is obliged by the riches and a variety to an abundance of vegetation which forms a basis for all food chains. Delta of the rivers and the sea shallows which have grown with seaweed in 15 with superfluous time is more productive than open ocean, and mangrovye a thicket - more than in 20 times. Bogs occupy about 6% of a surface of a terrestrial land and meet everywhere - from tundra to tropics.
Saline bogs are formed in silent shallow gulfs of moderate widths where silt and ooze deposits in the course of time collect. These are widespread landscapes of river deltas and the sea gulfs which have been fenced off sandy and galechnikovymi by plaits. Completely generated saline bog is cut up by a network of channels on which dvizhutsja tidal waves, and its flora depends on environmental conditions.
On kind 6000 km saline bogs of the Atlantic coast of the North America, almost entirely grown vallisneriej were stretched. Much richer flora and fauna of the bogs bordering in the north of Europe coast of the North Sea which please an eye with motley islets pink smolevki, lilac kermeka and a saline aster in the summer. Saline plants - galofity - perfectly transfer regular sea inflow.
The Most widespread plant in such territories - tolstolistyj soleros, the juicy leaves reminding a plant-sukkulent. It it is low steletsja by the ground and, thanks to ability to change osmotic pressure in fabrics, can absorb sea water. The saline aster accumulates salt in leaves and dumps them when concentration reaches a certain limit. In these territories, the set of birds usually nests in Europe it: krasnonozhki, kuliki-soroki, larks and ordinary seagulls. Here wild geese often winter. Black kazarki are fed saline sporyshom and a sea grass, grey geese and gumenniki - rhizomes of a giant cane. Extensive fields of the Canadian rice at east coast USA generously feed huge flights ovsjanok, krasnokrylyh and rice trupialov. Besides, saline soils are actively used for vypasa livestock.
Mangrovye of wood
Mangrovye of wood are typical for coastal shoal of tropics and subtropics where on all raised plots of land palm trees Nipa fruticans have located. These woods mainly represent dense thickets mangrovyh the trees which roots are shipped in sea water. The most advanced mangrovye woods where is to 60 kinds mangrovyh trees, border coast of South East Asia. These unusual trees show amazing examples of adaptation to external conditions. So, huge air roots red mangrovogo a tree grow directly from a trunk highly over water and as if anchors, keep a tree on unsteady soil. Black mangrovoe the tree possesses dense system of the underwater roots which are on depth to 2 m. From them respiratory roots - pnevmatofory grow upwards. At other kinds the same functions carry out numerous cranked shoots. The ripened seeds red mangrovogo a tree fall in water and immediately start up roots that outflow has not carried them in the sea.
The Numerous population mangrovyh woods has well adapted to a life on border between water and a land. In a matting of roots and branches small fishes oozy jumpers and attracting crabs feel at home. Jumpers quickly creep on liquid ooze, coiling all over and helping itself strong chest fins. With approach of inflow they strong cling for mangrovye roots, using for this purpose a sucker from accrete together analnyh fins, and during outflow submit each other signals movements of back fins. Oozy shoal - a primordial ancestral lands of attracting crabs. For the period of outflow they get out of holes on a surface. At males one claw is disproportionately great, and they involve with it of the sexual partner or frighten off contenders. In mangrovyh woods of Asia and others bespozvonochnymi various animals and birds, including collecting extraction on shoal of a macaque-kraboedy, and also a stork, frogs-kraboedy and water snakes eat crabs.
There is no time mangrovye woods occupied the huge areas, being stretched far on the north. Fossil seeds mangrovyh trees can be found even in Esseksky bogs nearby to London. It means that 60 million years ago in these edges grew dense mangrovye woods.
In the heart of continents often meet nizinnye and riding fresh-water bogs, bogs and a bog. From each other they differ a water level, an acid or alkaline substratum and character of vegetation.
If boggy lowlands for a summer dry up, the water level in a usual bog more or is less constant. As a rule, the alkaline substratum of the rehumidified lowlands serves as a nutrient medium for rich flora, including for parsley, a marsh orchid and a lady's bedstraw. Typical plants of boggy lowlands in moderate widths - canes and such hygrophilous kinds, as kaluzhnitsa marsh, a yellow iris and a marsh orchid. On usual bogs vegetation above - a reed, rogoz, a lake cane, the African papyrus and some kinds of trees.
The World's largest marsh system Everglejds in the State of Florida occupies the 28 thousand space км2. In saltish waters of its southern extremity even grow mangrovye woods. On the boundless bogs which have grown with a sword-grass the small islets chosen by such tropical plants, as palm trees, mahogany and a golden rubber plant are scattered. In the winter when the water level falls, the marsh living creatures get over more close to sleepy channels or the deep nested holes dug by alligators. From small mammals the raccoon, a water rabbit, a mink, a muskrat, an otter and a lynx here are found. The numerous bird's population is presented by grey and white herons, storks and pelicans. The majority of birds is fed with fish and amphibious. Zmeeshejka widely ploughs up wings for drying and without a miss beats fish long and sharp as a dagger a beak. The Kite-slizneed, unlike other predators, is fed with snails, extracting them from a cockleshell a thin hooked beak.
the Productive ecosystem
One of the most productive ecosystems in the world are grown the papyrus nizinnye bogs in the field of Sedd in the south of Sudan - a favourite dwelling travojadnogo the giant of the hippopotamus which weight reaches 2,5 tons. In water hippopotamuses are fed with water-lilies, and at night leave on a land popastis on a grass. For a night one hippopotamus is capable to eat about 140 kg of greens. These complacent giants clean reservoirs from surplus of vegetation and generously fertilise water manure. In the African bogs are found lichi and sitatungi, whose wide hoofs do not allow to fail in a liquid dirt. And in bogs of the South America there lives the largest rodent-vegetarian - vodosvinka. Eyes, ears and nostrils of this excellent swimmer are planted in the top part of a head as at a hippopotamus that quite answers an image of his life.
the Life on a season
In fluvial plains (and some bogs) a life clears up after loss of plentiful rains but when small reservoirs dry up, local inhabitants are compelled to adapt to new conditions. The marriage periods of many kinds coincide with water level fluctuations. With high water arrival rapid growth of all forms of vegetation, and together with it - insects and fish begins. During a dry season of a plant perish, and fish has no place to disappear from drying up puddles. Then there comes a turn of birds and other animals to regale gratuitous ulovom and to deduce posterity.
Bogs from them more or less a constant water level - unique type of the rehumidified earths where decomposition of the lost vegetation occurs the slowed down rates, and dead plants a layer behind a layer turn to peat. Bogs are formed at low temperatures, high acidity, scarcity of nutrients, presence of stagnant water and shortage of oxygen. At one time was considered that peatbogs prevail in high widths of northern hemisphere, but they are extended worldwide, up to tropics. Their total area makes not less than 500 million hectares.
Extensive bogs are available in Ireland and Northern Scotland. It porosshie a heather and pushitsej boundless heat with more than 30 kinds of a sphagnum. Marsh plants have successfully adapted by Wednesday with the limited quantity of nutritious mineral substances. For example, rosjanka and puzyrchatka fill up the stocks at the expense of insects and rachkov, caught by long sticky hairs or the vials hidden under water.
Value of bogs
Behind a sad and inexpressive marsh landscape one of the most valuable ecosystems of our planet disappears. The fertile and well humidified soils give big crops. For example, in Mali the internal delta of the river Niger has invaluable economic value. During annual high waters waters rich with nutrients spread on the 20 thousand area км2, irrigating stsementirovannye with an earth drought. Corpulent green pastures provide with a forage over 2,5 million cows, sheep and goats. The Canadian rice, sorgo and millet is everywhere grown up. Warm waters rich with a forage serve as a spawning area for two thirds of all fish consumed by us.
Bogs of tropics and subtropics where there are early stages of development of edible molluscs and cancers have Special value. Mangrovye trees are the important source of wood, especially in South East Asia. Trees of the most valuable tropical breeds, and a marsh palm tree grow in boggy woods of Indonesia Nipa fruticans supplies local population with fruits, sugar, vinegar, a hard liquor and a fibre. In northern hemisphere peat more than 2000 are used as fuel. In Ireland of the electric power of 40% develop seven power stations working on peat.
Use of animals
Not less important natural resources are the representatives of marsh fauna supplying the person by the big variety of products - from meat and skins to honey and the bird's or turtle eggs. In El Salvador local residents collect eggs of a wood duck which serve as the valuable albuminous additive to their rather poor diet. The various fauna of bogs involves the increasing number of fans of the nature thanks to what many poor countries receive considerable incomes of tourism. Inaccessibility of many bogs to the person does by their safe refuge for rare and vanishing species, for example, for the jaguar who has chosen extensive bogs of Pantanal in the south of Brazil, and the Siberian crane which large population winters on lake Pojan coast in Southern China.
Bogs carry out the major reguljatsionnye functions, operating as huge sponges, filters and the buffer zones supporting the general water balance. Accumulating water, they prevent high waters and allow to save means for erection of expensive dams and water basins.
Marsh vegetation and mangrovye woods strengthen a coastal line and weaken shock power of storm waves, without supposing washing out of coast. Dense filters of peatbogs catch nitric and phosphoric fertilizers which collect in a ground or are soaked up by roots of plants. Water is in such a way cleared and prevented eutrofikatsija (glut by nitrogen and the phosphorus, leading to mass development of seaweed) reservoirs. In the same way by dense root system of marsh plants are caught and jadohimikaty.
Destruction of bogs
From century to century people tirelessly drained bogs for the sake of the general progress. It became with a view of disposal of such illnesses as a malaria, or the drained earths were used in agriculture or the industry. One more reason of approach to bogs was that fact that two thirds of population of the Earth are concentrated to sea coasts and in pojmah the rivers. For example, in the USA it is drained over 50% of bogs, and that have remained, the serious damage is caused. Extensive territories in the State of Louisiana are occupied by saline bogs but after oil has been found in the beginning of 1900th in these edges, here have dug dense system of channels which in a combination to meliorative works have put an irreparable harm krevetochnym to shallows in Gulf of Mexico.
Have seriously suffered mangrovye woods in the southeast of Asia. The cut down trees are processed in a shaving exported to Japan, and in the cleared away territories piscicultural farms are created or drainage of the earths under agricultural grounds is conducted. With 1920 for 1980 Philippines have lost 65% mangrovyh woods.