Once bears without the account were found almost in all Northern hemisphere. Though it is largest of land predators, in a diet of the majority of bears meat - a rarity and a delicacy.
In family of bears is seven separate kinds which live in different regions of a planet and differ a number of features. At a considerable difference in dimensions all bears - powerful thickset animals with short strong feet and a small tail. Wide flat paws are supplied by five long and sharp, as razors claws which are not involved in small pillows, as at cats. All body of an animal is covered by dense fur of different colouring and lengths. Eyes and round ears are rather insignificant for a massive head. A nose damp and shining, as at a dog.
Usually the bear moves waddlingly on all four though can sometimes rise on hinder legs and prokovyljat some steps. The bear - an animal plantigrade, as well as the person, that is goes into full foot. If it is necessary, it passes to gallop and runs with impressing speed - to 50-60 km at an o'clock. Bears well lazajut, especially not so large kinds, and often even sleep on trees. All of them are able to float, but a polar bear in it simply professional.
Though bears carry to predators, actually in their diet much less meat, than at other animals of this group, and the most part "ьхэ¦" the vegetative food makes. It is possible to name faster than them omnivorous prisposoblentsami, eating everything that will be fallen into clutches. For many centuries of their evolution a teeth typical for predators too has changed the form, having adapted to a various diet.
The Exception is made by a polar bear. Snow open spaces of the Polar region do not please with an abundance of vegetative food, and it became the skilful hunter, especially on seals. Other bears eat fruits, berries, tubers, bulbs, mushrooms, nuts and acorns, from time to time flavouring all it is such delicacies, as insects, honey and larvae of wild bees. The small mammal or a reptile, but as required nesdobrovat and to a sheep, a wild wild boar or the elk who has beaten off from herd will quite fit in food.
Almost all bears are fed in the afternoon, spending the most part of time in search of a food. Possessing excellent sense of smell, they often take seat on a hillock and sniff to reaching smells.
In the Autumn the bears living in cold regions - except for their white colleague - strenuously nagulivajut fat before running into hibernation. With arrival of colds the bear finds a convenient place for a den where trains a dry grass, leaves and a moss. For a refuge the cave or a secluded crevice in a rock will approach, but happens that the bear and itself digs out a den.
It is impossible to name Winter rest of a bear the present hibernation for the temperature of its body and pulse filling do not fall though palpitation is slowed down. The animal for long weeks plunges into a deep sleep, but in warm day can wake up and leave on food searches. Having overslept about six months, the become unproductive bear gets out on a surface in the spring.
In the moderate and Arctic widths gon at bears occurs usually in the spring. Pregnancy lasts not for long but as females give rise not earlier than the middle of the period of hibernation, the oosperm is attached to a wall of a uterus of a she-bear only in October-November. This process name the detained implantation.
Females of all bears bring more often two improbably tiny cubs. Newborns weigh no more than 200-700 g, are blind, bezzuby and almost bezvolosy. They spend the rest of winter in a den with mother, eating its fat milk and quickly growing up. In the spring they get out on the sun, uncertainly tripping after mummy.
Bears often name eremites, and adult males really live independently, gather unless in a place of the general feeding. But first two-three years of a life bear cubs keep at mother who in this time has a new posterity. Therefore adult females spend the life most part together with the offsprings.
the Polar bear
In extensive territories of Russia, Norway, Greenland, Canada and the USA were stretched ice open spaces of the Polar region. Here there is a severe native land of polar bears - the largest representatives of the family.
The Latin name of this animal means "ьюЁёъющ ьхфтхфі" and more often he can be met there where the sea held down by ice meets a land. These excellent swimmers and divers feel in water as at home, float with a speed to 20 km/hour and are capable to be under water till 2 minutes. Vigorously floating polar bears saw in 300 with superfluous kilometres from a land. In water they are protected from a cold by a thick layer of hypodermic fat and a water-repellent fur coat. The dense bear fur with hardly a yellowish shade perfectly merges with snow-covered district and consists from dense go an underfur and long ostej. Even soles of paws are covered by a wool, allowing a bear to go confidently on slippery ice. He travels with drifting pakovymi ices on the area over 50 thousand км2.
As the Main food polar bears are served by seals, especially annulate seals. The bear creeps to seal lezhke, watches for extraction at lunki or swims up under water to a having a rest animal and powerful jerk makes the way through thin ice.
Only pregnant females suit a den for the winter, digging out a deep hole in coastal snow deposits. Tiny bear cubs are born in December-January, but only in three months leave together with mother on a surface.
the Brown bear
Though the brown bear has disappeared for a long time in many places of former dwelling, it still the most numerous kind from all family. It lives in the North America, Canada, in the north of Europe and in Russia, but in places meets and to the south - in Mexico, Spain, Turkey, Iran and in the Himalayas. Small population of brown bears lives and in Japan.
This kind totals the greatest number of the subspecies, one of which - a having bad reputation the North American grizzly. Other subspecies - kadjaksky a bear - compete to the white cousin for a title of the largest land predator. Colouring of fur of different subspecies fluctuates from light-pale-yellow, reddish, black-brown, ashy or silvery to brown with streaks of grey as at the grizzly from what that and has received the name (grizzled in English means "ё яЁюёхфі¦").
All brown bears most cosy feel in woods, leaving them only in search of livelihood, and their menu is various, as, perhaps, at anybody from relatives. For example, the Canadian brown bears - fine fishers, and this ability is not descended, and accustoms each bear anew.
the Black American bear
This most undersized, but the most numerous bear of the North America lives in woods almost in all territory of continent and meets more than in 20 states of the USA. Thanks to small weight, it often and willingly swarms up trees.
Despite the name, okras its fur coats fluctuates from white or silvery to light brown or chocolate, and times of the bluish-black. The muzzle end usually light yellow.
This absolutely omnivorous animal often arranges audits of garbage tanks in the American national parks and extortionate attacks on parking of tourists. In other its menu depends on a season and a habitat. In northern part of an area its favourite delicacies are small rodents, losjata and a salmon.
the Black Himalaya bear
Slightly less than the western colleague a black Himalaya bear. He lives in mountains and woods of all Aadi - from Iran to Korea and Japan. Its Latin name Selenarctos means "ыѕээ№щ ьхфтхфі" also occurs from a white mark on a mooned breast. Colouring of a dense fur coat usually black, however there are brown and reddish animals.
This excellent spiderman often climbs up behind a forage trees and, breaking branches with fruits and leaves, stacks them in similarity of a nest. Apparently, only inhabitants of North countries winter in dens where at this time deduce posterity. Southerners can run for a short while into hibernation or go down from mountains and all year long conduct an active way of life.
Smallest of all a Malayan bear lives in woods of Southern China, Myanma, Borneo and islands of Indonesia. This owner of a black smooth fur coat has received a nickname of a solar bear not so much because of habits (for it is a night animal), how many because of an orange mark on a mooned breast. In the afternoon he has usually a rest or sleeps on a rookery arranged in branches of a tree in 2 with superfluous metres from the earth.
Same omnivorous as everything, the Malayan bear has received a nickname "ьхфюышч" because of special predilection for this delicacy. Having found a beer nest, it breaks its powerful claws and extracts therefrom honey and larvae, without paying attention to stings of furious owners.
In a soft climate the Malayan bear does not run into hibernation and couples at any time year. Kids are born in dense thickets of a rainforest. Believe that these bears-nerazluchniki form steams on all life.
Living in woods of India and Sri Lanka gubach too it is active at night and, obviously, has only one sexual partner.
It differs From the colleagues a shaggy rigid fur coat. Its sharp whitish muzzle is almost deprived a fur cover and comes to an end with extremely mobile lips. Long hooked claws allow it to hang long on branches headfirst, like the idler, for what it and name "ьхфтхфі-ыхэштхч".
At all variety of a diet the main course 1убача are termites. Closed nostrils, the hollow sky and absence of a several foreteeth - that's all adaptations for eating of these insects. Rupture a termitary, gubach at first with force blows a dust and a dirt, and then soaks up insects through the extended lips. The den serves it not for wintering, but only for shelter. On Sri Lanka gubachi deduce posterity at any time year, and in India the pairing season lasts from April till June.
Ochkovyj a bear
Further all on the south the bear living in the Andes (South America) from Venezuela to Chile has got ochkovyj. It has received the name thanks to light yellow strips round eyes and a nose.
The bear is considered Ochkovyj the greatest vegetarian in family and eats even rigid enough plants. Being the good spiderman, it is fed and has a rest on branches of trees. This bear does not run into hibernation, and in January deduces posterity in reliably covered earthen nest.
All bears since ancient times were objects of active hunting - for the sake of meat, for sale in menageries and is simple for the sake of an entertainment. Fat and bile of a bear use in medicine, a skin - on carpets. As object of a craft mainly the brown bear always served, but today many kinds are threatened too with a total disappearance for places of their dwelling collapse a relentless gait of a civilisation.
The Black American is rather numerous in the area though in the past too was object of active hunting. The polar bear was threatened at one time with utter annihilation, but in 1970th years it was is taken under protection in all Arctic region, and lately its population has increased. Gubach too while out of danger though places of its dwelling all accustom the person more intensively.