Bats the surprising mammals who have seized art of flight, - meet everywhere, except polar areas and high mountains.
It is known that bats live on the Earth hardly probable not 50 million years. Scientists have found almost whole skeleton of the ancestor of the bat known as ikaronikteris, and dated a find the period eotsena. These beings in length of 8 sm practically do not differ from modern bats, therefore zoologists and could not come to a definitive conclusion about their origin and, in particular, whence at them ability to fly has developed. Believe, however, that bats have occurred from living on trees insectivorous.
Appearance of bats
In spite of the fact that bats very much differ from each other in the sizes and appearance, on all it is visible that they - bats and anything other. The body of a bat is covered sherstkoj which always has more light shade on a paunch. Wingspan varies from 15 sm almost to 2 m and what only forms do not accept these hands-wings! However, though long and narrow though short and wide - wings of bats always have the same structure.
Forward finitenesses of a bat are very well developed; its short shoulders are strong, and very long forearm is formed only by one beam bone. The thumb of forward finiteness comes to an end with a hooked claw, and other (rather long) fingers support membranes of the wings located on each side. The form of a body and length of a tail depend on an accessory of the individual to this or that kind. Bony vyrost, named a spur, helps many kinds to develop wings to the tail.
Bats fly by means of webby wings, moving synchronously with back finitenesses. The wings which membranes represent a double layer of a skin, are supplied by muscles and elastic veins, at rest, densely pressing them to a body.
Though bats share on set of kinds and live in a various environment, habits at them are marvellously similar. Almost all conduct a nocturnalism, and sleep in the afternoon, having hung headfirst. Bats do not twist nests.
The Majority of bats lives groups; the lonely way of life is inherent only in several kinds.
are arranged with Winter of the mouse for hibernation in secluded places, and during a warm season take cover for pairing and bringing up of cubs. Bats live in the caves, the thrown mines, crevices and in hollows of trees more often. It also rather to liking old houses. The large bats eating fruit, like to hang on branches of trees.
During rest the mouse thoroughly looks after the appearance and carefully cleans wings, a breast, a paunch.
Mobility of mice when they do not fly, depends on a kind: some are almost helpless and pity in the attempts to move, others, having combined wings, it is quite good lazajut and even can be started up skipping, and separate kinds like to be shaken, groping claws a place it is more convenient.
Hibernation at bats
With approach of colds to bats all is more difficult to find food In zones of a temperate climate. Therefore some kinds fly in warmer edges, but the great bulk lies down (to be exact, hangs) in hibernation.
Bats in places where nobody will disturb them where there are no draughts where it is possible to be hooked strongly Winter, and is where to hide, where the temperature does not fall below zero and damp enough air.
In the Autumn bats constantly eat, reserving fat for the winter, and to sleep, are arranged in October or November depending on temperature, presence of a forage and specific features. Mice gather groups and sleep, having hung headfirst and having taken cover wings.
a Food of bats
Almost all bats nasekomojadny, but at everyone the preferences: who loves midges and butterflies who - zhuchkov and spiders who catches dragonflies, and someone regales on wood larvae.
More often bats are quick to grasp extraction, overtaking insects in air. Some kinds have learnt to work as wings as a grid or as blades, rowing up insects is closer to a horn aperture, and some put a tail membrane and as if a net, catch it the of a victim or put there the hunting trophies. They eat too hurriedly though some kinds conducting more a regular life, after hunting are arranged for a detailed meal in the chosen place.
To tropical kinds belong krylany (flying dogs, kopenos and flying foxes). Unlike bats, they reach rather large sizes. Largest of krylanov - flying foxes. Ability to eholokatsii is established only at flying dogs. At many kinds the tail is absent. Eyes are well developed, sight sharp, and a teeth practically at all krylanov rastitelnojadnogo type. Tropical kinds of bats eat fruits that it is no wonder as in a hot and damp climate fruit ripens all year long. They eat both greens, and the insects who are coming across in the same fruits. In Eurasia the main fan of fruits - a flying fox, and in a New World - kopenos.
These kinds of bats also eat flower pollen and nectar, than promote reproduction of variety of plants. The mice eating colours, meet in tropics more often and differ a long, narrow head and a long tongue - that was easier drunk from a flower cup.
It is a little Carnivorous kinds of bats; at them the big and sharp teeth, and serves them as food mice and other four-footed small fry, and also small birds.
There are in the nature even two kinds of the bats eating fish. Their large powerful back finitenesses are supplied by improbably sharp claws which mice at sliding over a water smooth surface pierce fish as if ostrogoj. To the flying fisher on a teeth extraction in length to 8 sm; having got, the small fish goes straight to a mouth of a predator. Three kinds of blood-sicking bats occupy the American continent - from Mexico in the north to Argentina in the south. Having made sharp cutters, a cut on a skin of a victim, they drop to ranke and exhaust from it blood. In a saliva krovososov the special substance interfering a fibrillation, but usually quantity of the exhausted blood contains it is not dangerous to a victim rukokrylogo the vampire. However, always there is a danger infitsirovanija ranki: it is known that bats transfer furiousness activators.
The majority of bats has territories where they hunt, often flying the same route.
Ability to eholokatsii
From all bats only flying foxes have the eyes capable though something to see in the dark; thus all bats perfectly hunt at night. To find extraction it perfectly developed sense of smell, hearing and ability to eholokatsii - surprising and perfect gift of the nature help.
Simply speaking, the bat operates as a radar. A nose or a mouth it publishes inaudible sounds for the person in an ultrasonic range of frequencies. These are short impulses frequency of 20-120 kilohertz and in from 0,2 to 100 milliseconds, on the parametres strongly differing at representatives of different families. Their waves, being reflected from subjects, come back, as if an echo. Catching such signals, the bat is guided in space and defines the sizes, a site and density of subjects surrounding it.
This device is so perfect that some bats "С‚С€С„В =" wires in diameter less than 1 mm, and mice-fishers - the ripples lifted by fish on water.
Reproduction at bats
Almost all kinds of bats breed once a year. The majority on light has only one kid, at separate kinds - on two, and volosatohvost - a brown bat (the unique bat with 4 dummies), living in the south of Canada and in Central America, - for time gives birth to a three, and even four cubs.
In tropics bats give birth at any time year, and in moderate climatic zones pairing occurs in the autumn or during the winter period that kids were born in the spring.
Both males, and females of bats of a midland do not form pairs and often change partners. Sometimes the posterity is conceived on zimove: the male starts to fidget, creeps up to the nearest female and in the sleep couples with it.
At males sperm is formed in the summer and, already having got to an organism of a female, keeps viability till 7 months (the such it is not observed any more at anybody from mammals). As consequence, fertilisation at bats does not occur before the posterity of the moment most favorable for a birth.
At some kinds of bats jajtsekletka it is impregnated right after pairings, but some time gets later to a uterus. Fruit maturing (from conception till a birth) occupies the period from different kinds from 1,5 till 10 months, depending on pairing time. Having woken up from a winter dream, the male searches at once to itself for a female, and soon females (sometimes - thousand) gather in a colony for manufacture for light and bringing up of cubs.
the Birth of kids at bats
Usually bats give rise to cubs in the afternoon. Giving birth, the female sometimes hangs a head downwards, but fastens to the top or lateral surface of a refuge a head upwards is more often. Having been born (and feet forward that it is not observed any more at anybody from mammals), the little mouse gets to the tail membrane of mother combined by a bag.
The Female licks a blind and hairless cub, and it at this time is thin cheeps, and on this peep mother can learn it among thousand other little mice. It is interesting that almost helpless cubs of bats at a birth have the weight equal to half of weight of mother.
From the moment of birth the cub eats milk of mother; feeding term depends on a kind of a bat. Longest - the whole 9 months - brings up posterity the flying mouse-vampire.
Care of posterity
Insectivorous mice leave posterity in a colony and depart on hunting. Having returned, they without any work manage to find the kid in a huge pottering about heap.
In case of danger mother departs, carrying away with itself the baby, asked the price milk teeth to a nipple, and feet and fingers of forward finitenesses - to its wool.
Kids very quickly develop; their eyes open for 3-10th day, and sherstka grows from first week. Soon they already trip and lazajut, and the first flight make in 3-5 weeks - at different kinds differently. For example, large flying foxes cannot fly up till 3 months.
Mothers learn the children to fly and hunt. The cub is considered ripened at the age of 4 months, though a wool still otrosla not completely. The full maturity will come only in 2 years.
There Live bats from 5 till 10 years, occasionally living to 20. They fly on enough long distance - sometimes for a day they should overcome to 50 km.